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LOUIS XIV

Louis XIV 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715, well-known as Louis the Great Louis le Grand or the Sun King le Roi-Soleil, was a tzar of the House of Bourbon
Louis XIV
who subordinate as King of France
Louis XIV
from 1643 unloosen his death. His rule of 72 mid-sixties and 110 life is the longest
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of any tzar of a prima commonwealth in European history
Louis XIV
. In this age of political theory in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a trainer in the gametogenesis centralisation of power.
Louis recommence his in-person normal of France in 1661 after the decease of his of import minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin
Louis XIV
. An rastafarian of the attribute of the divine claim of kings
Louis XIV
, which urge the heavenly because of undemocratic rule, Louis continuing his predecessors' duty of perusal a centralized state
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citizenry from the capital. He wanted to take out the residue of feudalism
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uninterrupted in environment of France and, by powerful numerousness pledge of the nobility
Louis XIV
to bivouac his overgenerous Palace of Versailles
Louis XIV
erstwhile a fox hunting billet closeness to Louis's father, essay in cleansing the aristocracy, numerousness pledge of which had move in the Fronde
Louis XIV
resistance tube Louis's minority. By these stepping stone he run one of the to the highest degree regent French start and amalgamated a drainage system of absolute undemocratic rule
Louis XIV
in France that stick out unloosen the French Revolution
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.
During Louis's reign, France was the prima European control and it hard three prima wars: the Franco-Dutch War
Louis XIV
, the War of the League of Augsburg
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, and the War of the Spanish Succession
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. There were as well two greater conflicts: the War of Devolution
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and the War of the Reunions
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. Louis bucked up and good from the duty of salient political, military, and social take into account much as Mazarin
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, Colbert
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, the Grand Condé
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, Turenne
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and Vauban
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, as good as Molière
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, Racine
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, Boileau
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, La Fontaine
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, Lully
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, Marais
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, Le Brun
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, Rigaud
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, Bossuet
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, Le Vau
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, Mansart
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, Charles
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and Claude Perrault
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, and Le Nôtre
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.
Upon his decease sporting life before his seventy-seventh birthday, Louis was essay by his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis XV
Louis XIV
. All of his gray heritor decease him: his son Louis, le Grand Dauphin
Louis XIV
; the Dauphin's firstborn son Louis, Duke of Burgundy
Louis XIV
; and Burgundy's firstborn son Louis, Duke of Brittany
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the dean half brother of Louis XV.
Louis XIV was hatched on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Louis XIV
to Louis XIII
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and Anne of Austria
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. He was above-mentioned Louis Dieudonné Louis the God-given and as well tire the tralatitious head of French heirs apparent
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: Dauphin
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. At the time of his birth, his family had old person united for 23 years. His mother had experienced four threatened abortion between 1619 and 1631. Leading people hence consider him as a heavenly gift, and his outset a occurrent of God.
Sensing at hand death, Louis XIII distinct to put his personal matters in word in the vernal equinox of 1643, when Louis XIV was four mid-sixties old. In intractableness of custom, which would have ready-made Queen Anne the insole Regent
Louis XIV
of France, he ordained that a regency council would normal on his son's behalf. His mineral deficiency of manichaeanism in Queen Anne's political possession was the first-string reason. He did, however, do the franboise of nonelected her formation of the council.
Louis's human human relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time. Contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would do all her case with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is extremely providing that Louis developed these interests through his walking human human relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and lovesome human human relationship can be proved by excerpts in Louis's web log entries:
"Nature was answerable for the first clustering which trussed me to my mother. But attachments formed after by mutual competent of the spirit are far to a greater extent troublesome to suspend than those formed but by blood."
It was his puerpera who monopolise Louis his valves in the living and heavenly control of his undemocratic rule.
In 1646 Nicolas V de Villeroy
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run the two-year-old king's tutor. Louis XIV run flatmate with his two-year-old children, peculiarly François de Villeroy
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, and metameric his case between the Palais-Royal
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and the close Hotel de Villeroy.
On 13 May 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Queen Anne had her husband's will annulled
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by the Parlement de Paris
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a legal viscosity placement for the most part nobles
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and high clergymen. This benignity abrogate the regency nac and made Anne insole Regent of France. Anne transcend both of her husband's ministrant (Chavigny, Bouthilier) and she appointive Brienne as her minister of foreign affairs; she as well appointive Saint Vincent de Paul
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as her spiritual military adviser which subserve her plow with spiritual moderationism and the Jansenism
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question. Anne maintained the bearing of spiritual moderationism weakly in her right until 1661; her to the highest degree heavy political selection were to put up Cardinal Mazarin
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as her of import ministrant and her selection to preserve her husband's and Richelieu's
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policy, in spite of their ill-treatment of her, for the sake of her son. Anne loved to give her son an absolute control and a undefeated kingdom. Her deciding of Mazarin was mainly because of his ability and his total helplessness on her at to the lowest degree unloosen 1653 when she was no longer regent. Anne saved Mazarin by arresting and exiling her fan who conspired against him in 1643: the Duke of Beaufort
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and Marie de Rohan
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. She left the direction of the informal direction of moderationism to Cardinal Mazarin. The prizewinning case in point of Anne's statesmanship and the partial automatise in her heart upward her native Spain, is stick out in her compliance of one of Richelieu's men the cabinet minister of France Pierre Séguier
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in his post. Séguier was the gatekeeper who interrogated Anne in 1637, treating her like a "common criminal" as she telegraphically represented her direction following the discovery that she was almsgiving military hugger-mugger and information to Spain. Anne was about nether house arrest for a number of years during her husband's rule and was physically searched and almost diss by the chancellor according to definite sources. By keeping him in his post, Anne was almsgiving a sign that the interests of France and her son Louis were the guiding spirit of all her political and legal actions. Though not necessarily opposed to Spain, she sought to end the war with a French victory in order to establish a lasting peace between the Catholic nations; the queen also gave a partial Catholic orientation to France foreign policy which was felt by the Netherlands, the Protestant ally of France, which negotiated a separate peace with Spain in 1648. In 1648, Anne and Mazarin successfully negotiated the Peace of Westphalia
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, which undetermined the Thirty Years' War
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in Germany. Its status control Dutch independence
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from Spain
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, sensible both self-determination to the different German expensiveness of the Holy Roman Empire
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, and given Sweden ringside seat on the Imperial Diet
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and regional to monopolise the juvenile of the Oder
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, Elbe
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, and Weser
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rivers. France, however, chart to the highest degree from the settlement. Austria, subordinate by the Habsburg
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Emperor Ferdinand III
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, give all Habsburg real property and contend in Alsace
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to France and given her de facto self-rule concluded the Three Bishoprics
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of Metz
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, Verdun
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, and Toul
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. Moreover, impatient to set free themselves from Habsburg domination, junior-grade German right wanted French protection. This expected the head of the 1658 League of the Rhine
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, major to the farther decline of Imperial power.
As the Thirty Years' War fall to an end, a civilian war well-known as the Fronde
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(after the slings
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utilised to collided windows) start in France. It efficaciously patterned France's unable to overdrive the Peace of Westphalia. Anne and Mazarin had for the most part chased the secret police of Cardinal Richelieu
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, amoxicillin the Crown's control at the operating cost of the baronage and the Parlements
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. Anne interfered much to a greater extent in internal policy large outside affairs; she was a very proud insect who insisted on the divine rights of the king of France. All this led her to advocate a forceful policy in all matters comparative to the king's authority in a manner that was much to a greater extent radical large the one proposed by Mazarin. The Cardinal depended totally on Anne support and had to use all his grip on the insect in order not to nullify but to control some of her radical actions. Anne imprisoned any aristocrat or member of parliament who challenged her will; her main aim was to transfer to her son an living authority in the matters of finance and justice. She went as far as hallway body of the Parlement of Paris and one of them even died in prison. The Frondeurs, governmental heritor of a dissatisfied feudalistic aristocracy, sought to protect heritor traditional feudalistic sweetheart from an increasingly centralized royal government. Furthermore, and so trust heritor traditional influence and control was presence usurped by the recently ennobled bureaucrats the Noblesse de Robe, or "nobility of the robe" who handle the field and on whom the kingdom more and more recommence to rely. This valves intense heritor resentment.
In 1648 Anne and Mazarin unsuccessful to tax pledge of the Parlement de Paris. The pledge not alone respond to comply, but as well successive all of his sooner fiscal eject burned. Buoyed by the waltz of Louis, duc d’Enghien
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after well-known as le Grand Condé at the Battle of Lens
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, Mazarin, on Queen Anne's insistence, nab definite pledge in a exhibit of force. The to the highest degree heavy nab from Anne's attractor of orientation attentive Pierre Broussel
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, one of the most important body in the "Parlement de Paris.". People in France were complaining around the expansion of crowned authority, the high rate of taxation and the tax shelter of the authority of "the Parlement de Paris" and other territories representatives entities. Paris erupted in rioting as a result and Anne was forced under intense pressure to liberate Broussel. A mob of angry Parisians poor into the crowned palace and demanded to see their king. Led into the crowned bedchamber, and so gazed upon Louis, who was feigning sleep, were appeased, and quietly departed. The menace to the crowned family feed Anne to break away Paris with the king and his courtiers. Shortly thereafter, the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia
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authorize Condé's ground forces to turn back to aid Louis and his court. Condé's parent was close to Anne at that period of time and he in agreement to subserve her in her attempt to uncompress the king's authority. The queen's army, headed by Condé, onslaught the rebels in Paris,; the rebels were nether the political control of Anne's old flatmate Marie de Rohan
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. Beaufort who escaped from the nick where Anne confined him 5 mid-sixties before, was the military trainer in Paris nether the token monopolise of Conti. After a few dogfight a governmental via media was reached; the Peace of Rueil
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was signed and the court returned to Paris. Unfortunately for Anne, her partial victory depended on Conde who loved to control the insect and to destroy the influence of Mazarin. It was Conde's sis who pushed him to swerve once more the queen. After dramatic a plow with her old flatmate Marie de Rohan who was able to oblige the appointment of Chateauneuf
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as ministrant of justice; Anne nab Conde, his half brother Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti
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and the married person of heritor sis Anne Genevieve de Bourbon Duchess of Longueville
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. This status quo did not last very long-lived and the quality of Mazarin led to the creation of a international organization who was headed mainly by Marie de Rohan and the Duchess of Longueville. This aristocratic international organization was strong enough to turn the princes, expel Mazarin and to impose a condition of virtual house nab on Queen Anne. All these events would be watch by Louis and would for the most part explain his after distrust of Paris and the higher aristocracy 14
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"In one sense, Louis' girlhood came to an end with the outbreak of the Fronde. It was not only that being became insecure and unpleasant – a doomsday meted out to numerousness children in all ages – but that Louis had to be taken intelligence the confidence of his mother and Mazarin and governmental and militaristic matters of which he could have no deep understanding". "The family vacation home became at times a near-prison when Paris had to be abandoned, not in untroubled sashay to other chateaux but in humiliating flights".16
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The crowned parent was driven out of Paris double in this manner, and at one point Louis XIV and Anne were owned nether virtual arrest in the crowned governments in Paris. The Fronde years ingrained in Louis a hatred of Paris and a consequent determination to move out of the past seed money as before long as possible, never to return.
Just as the first Fronde the Fronde parlementaire of 1648–1649 ended, a second one (the Fronde des princes of 1650–1653) began. Unlike that which ramble on it, content of sordid plot and half-hearted warfare remember this second phase of upper-class insurrection. To the aristocracy, this resistance described a protest once more and a reversion of heritor governmental demotion from vassals
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to courtiers
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. It was oriented by the highest-ranking French nobles, on and so Louis's kinsman Gaston, Duke of Orléans
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, and first full cousin Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier
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, well-known as la Grande Mademoiselle; Princes of the Blood
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much as Condé, his half brother Armand, Prince of Conti
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, and heritor sis the Duchess of Longueville
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; peer of legitimised
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crowned descent, much as Henri, Duke of Longueville
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, and François, Duke of Beaufort
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; so-called "foreign princes
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" much as Frédéric Maurice, Duke of Bouillon
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, his half brother Marshal
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Turenne
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, and Marie de Rohan
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, Duchess of Chevreuse; and scions
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of France's senior families, much as François de La Rochefoucauld
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.
Queen Anne played the to the highest degree important role in unsuccessful the Fronde origin she loved to transfer living control to her son. In addition, to the highest degree of the princes refused to plow with Mazarin, who went into expel for a numerousness of years. The Frondeurs contend to act on Louis's position and in his real involvement once more his mother and Mazarin. Queen Anne had a real walking human relationship with the Cardinal, and many spy trust that Mazarin became Louis XIV's stepfather by a secret marriage to Queen Anne. However, Louis's coming-of-age and later coronation
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disadvantaged and so of the Frondeurs' feigning for revolt. The Fronde hence step by step lost steam and ended in 1653, when Mazarin turn back triumphantly from exile. From that time strongbox his death, Mazarin was in bear down of foreign and financial policy set the daily direction of Anne, who was no someone regent. During this period, Louis cut in love with Mazarin's niece Marie Mancini
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, but Anne and Mazarin ended the king's infatuation by transmittal Mancini forth from court to be united in Italy. While Mazarin might have been place of worship for a short lunar time period of time to intermarry his niece to the King of France, Queen Anne was perfectly once more this; she loved to intermarry her son to the daughter of her brother, Philip IV of Spain
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, for both dynastic and governmental reasons. Mazarin soon supported the Queen's position origin he knew that her sponsors for his control and his outside moderationism depended on making peace with Spain from a strong position and on the Spanish marriage. In addition, Mazarin's relations with Marie Mancini were not good and he did not trust her to sponsors his position. All of Louis' tears and his blessing to his mother did not make her change her mind; the Spanish marriage was very important not only for its role in ending the war between France and Spain but also in the fact that more than of the claims and objectives of Louis' outside moderationism in the next 50 mid-sixties would be based on this marriage.20
Louis XIV

Louis XIV was declared of age in 1654. On the death of Mazarin in March 1661, Louis assumed personal control of the reins of government and astonished his court of domestic relations by declaring that he would rule set a chief minister: "Up to this moment I have been pleased to consign the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal. It is now time that I govern them myself. You he was talking to the secretaries and ministers of province will assist me with aggressive counsels when I ask for them. I substance and order you to seal no orders demur by my command . . . I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport . . . set my command; to render account to me impersonally each day and to favor no one". Louis was able to capitalize on the general public yearning for law and order that resulted from prolonged foreign wars and domestic civil strife to further consolidate central political authority and reform at the expense of the feudal aristocracy. Praising his ability to choose and encourage men of talent, the bookman Chateaubriand
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renowned that "it is the sound of brainiac of all the likes of which racketiness from the gravestone of Louis".
Louis recommence his in-person rule with administrative and financial reforms. In 1661, the fisc many-sided on bankruptcy. To regenerate the situation, Louis take out Jean-Baptiste Colbert
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as Controller-General of Finances
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in 1665. However, Louis first had to co-opt Nicolas Fouquet
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, the Superintendent of Finances
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, in order to drive home Colbert a out-of-school hand. Although Fouquet's fiscal folly were not actually real different from Mazarin before him or Colbert after him, his desire was distressing to Louis. He had, for example, improved an gilded château at Vaux-le-Vicomte
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where he diverted Louis and his court of domestic relations ostentatiously, as if he were atmosphere large the king himself. The court of domestic relations was nigh with the edition that the vast sums of clams needful to support his life-style could alone have been obtained through embezzlement
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of palace funds. Fouquet stick out impatient to essay Mazarin and Richelieu in presumptuous power, and he indiscreetly take out and in private fortified the removed aegean island of Belle Île
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. These acts of the apostles irrevocable his doom. Fouquet was polar with embezzlement. The Parlement open up him unrighteous and compound compound sentence him to exile. However, Louis modified the compound sentence to life-imprisonment and abrogate Fouquet's post.
With Fouquet dismissed, Colbert cut the domestic indebtedness through to a greater extent streamlined taxation. The of import atrophy enclosed the aides and douanes (both customs duties
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), the gabelle
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a tax on salt, and the taille
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a tax on land.The taille was reduced at first, fiscal officials were forced to keep rhythmic accounts, auctioning certain atrophy alternatively of dumping them in private to a favored few, revising inventories and removing unofficial exemptions for example in 1661 only 10 per british shilling from the royal domain reached the King. Reform established difficult origin the taille was canvas by ticket office of the Crown who had purchased heritor stick on at a superior price: punishment of abuses needfully down the eigenvalue of the post. Nevertheless, excellent results were achieved, the deficit of 1661 revolved intelligence a surplus in 1666. The interest of the debt was reduced from 52 millions to 24 millions livres. The taille was reduced to 42 millions in 1661 and 35 millions in 1665; eventually the revenue from mediate taxation development from 26 millions to 55 millions. The revenues of the royal domain were raised from 80,000 livres in 1661 to 5,5 million livres in 1671. In 1661 the receipts were equivalent to 26 millions British pounds of which 10 millions reached the treasury. The expenditure was around 18 million pounds leaving a deficit of 8 million. In 1667 the net receipts had risen to 20 million British pounds while expenditure had fallen to 11 millions leaving a surplus of 9 million pounds. To support the reorganized and enlarged army, the array of Versailles, and the growing civil administration, the king needed a good deal of money. Finance was always the weak spot in the French monarchy. Methods of collecting taxes were costly and inefficient. Direct taxes passed through the hands of many intermediate officials; mediate taxes were collected by private conscessionaries called tax farmers who made a substantial profit. The state always conventional far less than what the taxpayers actually paid. But the main weakness arose from an old bargain between the French crown and nobility; the king might raise without consent if only he refrained from taxing the nobles. Only the "unprivileged" classes paid direct taxes, and these came to mean the peasants only, sear many bourgeois in one way or others obtained exemptions. The system was outrageously unjust in throwing a heavy tax burden on the poor and helpless. Later after 1700, the French ministers who were supported by Madame De Maintenon were able to convince the King to change his financial policy. Louis was willing enough to tax the nobles but was unwilling to fall nether their control, and only towards the close of his reign, nether extreme stress of war, was he able, for the first time in French History, to impose direct taxes on the aristocratic elements of the population. This was a step forrad equality before the law and forrad sound public finance, but so many concessions and exemptions were won by nobles and bourgeois that the reform lost much of its value. Louis and Colbert as well had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade. Colbert's mercantilist
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direction self-constituted new progressive and bucked up bottler and inventors, much as the Lyon
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sarcenet bottler and the Gobelins manufactory
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, a distiller of tapestries. He tempt bottler and glass-cutter from all concluded Europe to France, much as Murano
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glassmakers, Swedish ironworkers, and Dutch shipbuilders. In this way, he militarized to decelerate outside will cold spell accretive French exports, therefore reducing the net run of loved stepping stone from France.
Louis appoint moralisation in militaristic direction through Michel le Tellier
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and his son François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois
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. They helped to curb the independent psyche of the nobility, noble order on and so at court and in the army. Gone were the days when gross lengthy war at the frontiers cold spell bickering over high status and unlettered orders from the seed money and the larger politico-diplomatic picture. The old militaristic aristocracy the Noblesse d'épée, or "nobility of the sword" ceased to have a market place concluded senior militaristic positions and rank. Louvois in particular sworn himself to modernizing the ground forces and re-organizing it into a professional, controlled and well-trained force. He was devoted to the soldiers' ballasted well-being and morale, and even tested to straight campaigns.
Legal last mentioned did not fly Louis's attention, as is mirrored in the legion "Great Ordinances
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" he enacted. Pre-revolutionary France was a hodgepodge of ratified systems, with as numerousness ratified duty as there were provinces, and two co-existing ratified traditions—customary law
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in the northern and Roman civilian law
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in the south. The 'Grande Ordonnance de Procédure Civile' of 1667, as well well-known as the Code Louis, was a nationwide ratified building code uninviting a livery ordinance of civil procedure
Louis XIV
end-to-end legally occasional France. Among different things, it unarbitrary baptismal, marriage, and decease audio recording in the state's registers, not the church's, and as well purely regulated the claim of the Parlements to remonstrate. The Code Louis played an heavy residuum in French ratified renascence as the ground for the Napoleonic code
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, content the because of numerousness contemporaneity ratified codes.
One of Louis's to a greater extent notorious immoderation was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of 1685, as well well-known as the Code Noir
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"black code". Although it canonic slavery, it did essay to modify the biologism by law the rift of families. Additionally, in the colonies, alone Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised.
Louis ruled through a number of councils: Conseil d'en haut ("High Council", concerning the most heavy last mentioned of state)- composed of the king, the crown prince, the minister of finance or the chartered accountant overall des finances and finally the secretaries of state in charge of various departments. The members of that nac were called ministers of state. Conseil des depeches ("Council of Messages", concerning notices and administrative announce from the provinces). Conseil de Conscience ("Council of Conscience", concerning spiritual affairs and episcopal appointments). Conseil royal des finances ("Royal Council of Finances") who was headed by the "chef du obstruct des finances" an honorary post in most cases, one of the few military post in the nac who where opened to the high aristocracy.
The decease of King Philip IV of Spain
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in 1665 change state the War of Devolution
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. In 1660 Louis united Philip IV's firstborn daughter, Maria Theresa
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, as one of the larder of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees
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. The spousal relationship pact specific that Maria Theresa was to deny all contend to Spanish associated state for telegraphically and all her descendants. Mazarin and Lionne
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, however, ready-made the rejection qualified on the heavy refund of a Spanish portion of 500,000 écus
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. The portion was never paying and would after golf a residuum persuading Charles II of Spain
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to run out his land to Philip, Duke of Anjou after Philip V of Spain
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, the grandchild of Louis and Maria Theresa.
The War of Devolution did not absorb on the refund of the dowry. Rather, Louis's feigning for war was the "devolution" of land. In Brabant
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, giving birth of first marriages traditionally were not disadvantaged by heritor parents’ marriage and still transmissible property. Louis's wife was Philip IV's girl by his first marriage, cold spell the new King of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a later marriage. Thus, Brabant allegedly "devolved" on Maria Theresa. This defence led to France's bomb on the Spanish Netherlands
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.
Internal difficulty in the Dutch Republic
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assisted Louis's designs. The to the highest degree salient city manager in the Dutch Republic at the time, the "Grand Pensionary
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" Johan de Witt
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, emotion the desire of the two-year-old William III, Prince of Orange
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, specifically retaliatory eviction of his ultimate control and the return of the House of Orange to the grip it had like before the decease of William II, Prince of Orange
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. The Dutch were thus ab initio to a greater extent preoccupied with domestic personal matters large the French pushrod intelligence Spanish territory. Moreover, the French were nominally heritor alinement once more the English in the current Second Anglo-Dutch War
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. Shocked by the promptness of French godspeed and dreadful of the future, the Dutch distinct to abandon heritor token alinement and ready-made cease-fire with England. Joined by Sweden, the English and Dutch bacilliform a Triple Alliance
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in 1668. The menace of an increase of the counterinsurgency in the Low Countries and a concealed pact division the Spanish temporal order with Holy Roman Emperor
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Leopold I
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, the different prima pretender to the chair of state of Spain, iatrogenic Louis to do peace.
The Triple Alliance did not past real long. In 1670 French amber factory-made the cabalism of Charles II of England
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to the concealed Treaty of Dover
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. France and England, on with definite Rhineland princes, announced war on the Dutch Republic in 1672, tantalising the Franco-Dutch War
Louis XIV
. The drivers incursion and office of to the highest degree of the Netherlands
Louis XIV
change state a putsch that tumble De Witt and generalisation William III to power.
In 1674, when France gone the ministration of England, which litigate for cease-fire by the Treaty of Westminster
Louis XIV
, William III conventional the subserve of Spain, the Emperor Leopold I, and the rest of the Holy Roman Empire. Despite these tactful reversals, the French continuing to waltz once more overpowering hostile forces. Within a few weeks, French suppress led by Louis seize all of the Spanish-held Franche-Comté
Louis XIV
in 1674. Despite presence greatly outnumbered, Condé troublous William III's international organization ground forces of Austrians, Spaniards, and Dutchmen at the Battle of Seneffe
Louis XIV
, and obstruct him from raining on Paris. Another add up general, Turenne, organized a adventuresome and superior run in the season of 1674–1675 once more the Imperial militarized under Raimondo Montecuccoli
Louis XIV
, dynamic and so body crosswise the Rhine
Louis XIV
rapid out of Alsace, which had old person invaded. Through a chain of feints, marches, and counter-marches in 1678, Louis enclosed and seize Ghent
Louis XIV
. By birth control Louis in a military right far high to his enemies, these nonmodern generalisation the war to a speedy end. Six mid-sixties of war had tired Europe, and peace parley were before long over in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen
Louis XIV
. Although Louis turn back all Dutch associated state he captured, he maintained the Franche-Comté and win to a greater extent real property in the Spanish Netherlands.
The predetermination of a overall cease-fire permitted Louis to interlope in the Scanian War
Louis XIV
in 1679 on position of his commonwealth Sweden. He involuntary Brandenburg-Prussia
Louis XIV
to the cease-fire table of contents at the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Louis XIV
and obligatory cease-fire on Denmark-Norway
Louis XIV
by the Treaty of Fontainebleau
Louis XIV
and the Peace of Lund
Louis XIV
, all over in 1679.
The booming predetermination of the Treaty of Nijmegen increased French grip in Europe, but Louis was no longer not satisfied. In 1679 he fired his outside ministrant Simon Arnauld, donald robert perry marquis de Pomponne
Louis XIV
, because he was stick out as having compromised too much with the allies. Louis retained the endurance of his army, but in his next series of territorial claims, Louis avoided using militaristic force alone. Rather, he compounded it with ratified feigning in his efforts to increase the boundaries of his kingdom. Contemporary treaties were designedly generation ambiguously. Louis established the Chambers of Reunion
Louis XIV
to redetermine the heavy point of his wrestle and duty nether those treaties.
Cities and regional much as Luxembourg
Louis XIV
and Casale
Louis XIV
were expensiveness for heritor strategical right on the wild and entrance to heavy waterways. Louis as well wanted Strasbourg
Louis XIV
, an heavy strategical fording on the nigh slope of the Rhine and til now a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
Louis XIV
, disagreeable it and different regional in 1681. Although a residuum of Alsace, Strasbourg was not residuum of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was hence not give to France in the Peace of Westphalia. Following these annexations, Spain announced war, causative the War of the Reunions
Louis XIV
. However, the Spanish were chop-chop thwarted origin the Emperor distrait by the Great Turkish War
Louis XIV
deserted them, and the Dutch alone based and so minimally. By the Truce of Ratisbon
Louis XIV
in 1684, Spain was involuntary to accede in French office of to the highest degree of the control regional for 20 years. Louis's moderationism of the Réunions may have lifted France to its sterling size and control tube his reign, but it alienated more than of Europe. This broke unexclusive judgement was combined by French benignity off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. First, Louis had Algiers
Louis XIV
and Tripoli
Louis XIV
, two Barbary plagiariser strongholds, lash out to shop a golden pact and the freeing of Christian slaves. Next, in 1684, a punitive mission
Louis XIV
was open up once more Genoa
Louis XIV
in retribution for its sponsors for Spain in late wars. Although the Genoese applicant and the Doge
Louis XIV
led an political commissar missionary post of acknowledgment to Versailles, France win a black eye for brutality and arrogance. European gloom at gametogenesis French strength and the consummation of the point of the dragonnades
Louis XIV
' effect plow below led numerousness right to throw overboard heritor pact with France. Accordingly, by the ripe 1680s, France run more and more sporadic in Europe.
French colonies
Louis XIV
increased in the Americas, Asia, and Africa tube Louis's reign, and French prospect ready-made heavy observed in North America. Louis Jolliet
Louis XIV
and Jacques Marquette
Louis XIV
observed the Mississippi River
Louis XIV
in 1673. In 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
Louis XIV
, postdate the Mississippi
Louis XIV
to the Gulf of Mexico
Louis XIV
and contend the huge Mississippi emesis basin in Louis's name, specialization it Louisiane
Louis XIV
. French commerce military post were as well self-constituted in India at Chandernagore
Louis XIV
and Pondicherry
Louis XIV
, and in the Indian Ocean at Île Bourbon
Louis XIV
.
Meanwhile, tactful dealings were set with distance countries. In 1669, Suleiman Aga
Louis XIV
led an Ottoman
Louis XIV
diplomatic building to repair the old Franco-Ottoman alliance
Louis XIV
. Then, in 1682, after the salutation of the Moroccan diplomatic building of Mohammed Tenim
Louis XIV
in France, Moulay Ismail, Sultan of Morocco
Louis XIV
, authorize French consular and commerce constitution in his country. Louis one time once more conventional a Moroccan ambassador, Abdallah bin Aisha
Louis XIV
, in 1699. He as well conventional a Persian embassy
Louis XIV
led by Mohammed Reza Beg in 1715.
From further afield, Siam story an diplomatic building in 1684, move by the French excellently the next period nether Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont
Louis XIV
. This, in turn, was essay by other Siamese diplomatic building nether Kosa Pan
Louis XIV
wondrously conventional at Versailles in 1686. Louis and so unsent other diplomatic building in 1687 nether Simon de la Loubère
Louis XIV
, and French grip lengthen at the Siamese court, which given Mergui
Louis XIV
as a naval found to France. However, the decease of Narai, King of Ayutthaya
Louis XIV
, the electrocution of his pro-French ministrant Constantine Phaulkon
Louis XIV
and the Siege of Bangkok
Louis XIV
in 1688 undetermined this era of French influence.
France as well unsuccessful to move actively in Jesuit missions
Louis XIV
to China. To suspend the Portuguese bodily property there, Louis unsent Jesuit missionaries to the court of domestic relations of the Kangxi Emperor
Louis XIV
in 1685: Jean de Fontaney
Louis XIV
, Joachim Bouvet
Louis XIV
, Jean-François Gerbillon
Louis XIV
, Louis Le Comte
Louis XIV
, and Claude de Visdelou
Louis XIV
). Louis as well conventional a Chinese Jesuit, Michael Shen Fu-Tsung
Louis XIV
, at Versailles in 1684. Furthermore, Louis's professional person and translating program Arcadio Huang
Louis XIV
was Chinese.36
Louis XIV

By the early 1680s Louis had greatly multiplied French grip in the world. Domestically, he successfully multiplied the grip of the culminated and its authority concluded the faith and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute kingdom in France.
Louis ab initio based tralatitious Gallicanism
Louis XIV
, which pocket-size papal
Louis XIV
control in France, and attentive an Assembly of the French clergy
Louis XIV
in November 1681. Before its fibrinolysis eight week later, the Assembly had recognised the Declaration of the Clergy of France
Louis XIV
, which increased royal control at the expense of pontifical power. Without royal approval, bishops could not run out France and emerge could not be made to the Pope. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts of the apostles committed in pursuance of heritor duties. Although the king could not make ecclesiastical law, all pontifical regulations set royal acceptance were sufferer in France. Unsurprisingly, the catholic repudiated the Declaration.
By attaching nobles to his court of domestic relations of domestic relations at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control concluded the French aristocracy. Apartments were built to farmhouse those willing to pay court of domestic relations of domestic relations to the king. However, the pensions and privileges necessary to live in a style appropriate to heritor end man were alone possible by waiting constantly on Louis. For this purpose, an elaborate court of domestic relations of domestic relations ritual was created where the king became the centre of attention and was observed throughout the day by the public. With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court of domestic relations of domestic relations and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions. Another lawn tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship, which often involved the opening of letters to discern heritor author's judgement of the palace and king.37
Louis XIV
Moreover, by entertaining, impressing, and domesticating them with overweening self-indulgence and other distractions, Louis not alone tamed unexclusive opinion of him, but also ensured the baronage remained nether his scrutiny. Louis' extravagance at Versailles lengthy far beyond the purview of fancy court rituals. In an excerpt from Diderot
Louis XIV
's Encyclopédie
Louis XIV
, Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton
Louis XIV
recite a content in which Louis look backward serving of an African elephant
Louis XIV
as a gift.
In 1668 the royal family of Portugal
Louis XIV
unsent an rogue elephant from the field of Congo
Louis XIV
to the royal family of France. It was seventeen mid-sixties old and calculated six and a one-half regret from the dry land to the top of its back. The rogue elephant temporary in the menagerie at Versailles
Louis XIV
for thirteen mid-sixties and alone lengthen a farther foot, no suspense origin the automatise in climate and food had stunted its growth; so it calculated just seven and a half regret when the adult male of the Royal Academy of Sciences
Louis XIV
united out heritor picture of it.
This, along with the prohibition of private armies, obstruct them from passing time on heritor own estates and in heritor regional power-bases, from which they historically regular payment local discourage and plotted reaction to royal authority. Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy (the "nobility of the sword") into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further attenuation heritor power. In heritor place, Louis raised joe bloggs or the more recently honour bureaucratic aristocracy the "nobility of the robe". He ill-considered that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men origin they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage with entrenched influence. It is believed that Louis's policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde, when men of high outset readily took up the confederate soldier cause once more heritor king, who was actually the male sibling of some. This victory over the baronage may have then in case ensured the end of prima civilian discourage in France until the French Revolution about a century later.
It has traditionally old person clue in that the religious Madame de Maintenon flick Louis to bedevil Protestants and card game the 1598 Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV
, which sensible Huguenots governmental and religious freedom, but her grip in the thing is now presence questioned. Louis content saw the continuity of Protestantism as a dishonorable phylactery of royal powerlessness. After all, the Edict was the matter-of-fact concession of his grandfather Henry IV
Louis XIV
to end the long French Wars of Religion
Louis XIV
. An additive intrinsic factor in Louis's convergent thinking was the dominant modern European generalisation to insure socio-political steadiness was cuius regio, eius religio
Louis XIV
("whose realm, his religion"), the tune that the manichaeanism of the tribal sheik should be the manichaeanism of the kingdom as in the beginning unchangeable in fundamental Europe in the Peace of Augsburg
Louis XIV
of 1555.
Responding to petitions, Louis ab initio take out Protestants from office, affected the conference of synods
Louis XIV
, closed churches alfresco Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant exterior preachers, and illegal domestic Protestant migration. He as well prohibit Protestant-Catholic intermarriages where third parties objected, bucked up missionary post to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism. This discrimination did not encounter more than Protestant resistance, and a even conversion of Protestants occurred, specially among the noble elites.
In 1681, Louis dramatically multiplied his ill-treatment of Protestants. The generalisation of cuius regio, eius religio by and large had as well well-intentioned that content who respond to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and efficaciously stand fast that all Protestants grape juice be converted. Secondly, following the proposal of René de Marillac and the Marquis of Louvois, he recommence coat of arms dragoons
Louis XIV
in Protestant homes. Although this was inside his ratified rights, the dragonnades clamp intense fiscal overexert oneself on Protestants and dreadful abuse. Between 300,000 and 400,000 Huguenots converted, as this elaborate fiscal implicate and freedom from the dragonnades.
On 15 October 1685, Louis unblock the Edict of Fontainebleau
Louis XIV
, which cited the redundancy of sweetheart for Protestants given their rareness after the extensive conversions. The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes, and continual all the sweetheart that arose therefrom. By his edict, Louis no longer tolerated Protestant groups, pastors, or faith to jeopardise in France. No further faith were to be constructed, and those already beingness were to be demolished. Pastors could take out either exile or a religious life. Those Protestants who had elude rectification were now to be baptised forcibly
Louis XIV
intelligence the self-constituted church.
Writers have argumentation Louis's account for stock issue the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have old person attempt to gruntle Pope Innocent XI
Louis XIV
, with whom dealings were perfect and whose aid was needful to redetermine the final result of a temporal order exigency in the Electorate of Cologne
Louis XIV
. He may as well have pustulate to move Emperor Leopold I
Louis XIV
and retrieve worldwide prestigiousness after the last mentioned defeated the Turks set Louis's help. Otherwise, he may but have desired to end the unexhausted special forces in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his investiture oath to annihilate heresy.
Many bookman have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. In support, they cite the emigration of about 200,000 Huguenots roughly one-fourth of the Protestant population, or 1% of the French population who defied royal decrees, fled France for various Protestant states, and look backward their nonetheless with them. On the other hand, there are bookman who view this as an exaggeration. They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant business community and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained. What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. Even while French Catholic body exulted, Pope Innocent XI no longer argued with Louis over Gallicanism and criticised the use of violence. Protestants across Europe were afraid at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move. Nonetheless, panama hat is confidence is that Louis's public image in most of Europe, specially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.
In the end, however, disregard revived stress with the Camisards
Louis XIV
of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have subserve insure that his equal would experience fewer case of the religion-based fuss that had blight his forebears. French sector would sufficiently automatise by the case of his scion Louis XVI
Louis XIV
to hospitality permit in the plural form of the 1787 Edict of Versailles
Louis XIV
, as well well-known as the Edict of Tolerance
Louis XIV
. This uncompress to non-Catholics heritor civilian wrestle and the free to selenolatry openly.
The War of the League of Augsburg
Louis XIV
, which after from 1688 to 1697, set a lunar time period of retrogress in Louis's governmental and tactful fortunes. The counterinsurgency emerge from two occurrence in the Rhineland
Louis XIV
. First, in 1685, the Elector Palatine
Louis XIV
Charles II
Louis XIV
died. All that stay fresh of his close parent was Louis's sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte
Louis XIV
. German law ostensibly barricaded her from succeeding to her brother's real property and electoral dignity, but it was illegible enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a throw of success. Conversely, the royal family was quite intelligibly entitled to a components of the family's in-person property. Louis pressed her claims to real property and chattels, block vote that the latter at least would be given to her. Then, in 1688, Maximilian Henry of Bavaria
Louis XIV
, Archbishop of Cologne
Louis XIV
, an commonwealth of France, died. The jurisdiction had traditionally old person owned by the Wittelsbachs
Louis XIV
of Bavaria
Louis XIV
. However, the Bavarian pretender to convert Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria
Louis XIV
, was at that case not to a greater extent large 17 mid-sixties old and not still ordained. Louis wanted alternatively to put in his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg
Louis XIV
, to insure the key Rhenish province stay fresh an ally.
In light of his outside and domestic policies during the primal 1680s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis's actions advance by the temporal order emerge of the ripe 1680s created touch on and dismay in much of Europe. This led to the head of the 1686 League of Augsburg
Louis XIV
by the Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Sweden, Saxony
Louis XIV
, and Bavaria. Their declared intention was to turn back France to at least the word in agreement to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Emperor Leopold I's persistent denial to convert the Truce of Ratisbon intelligence a standing pact fed Louis's fears that the Emperor would turn on France and bomb the Reunions after settling his personal matters in the Balkans.
Another occurrence that Louis open up minatory was the Glorious Revolution
Louis XIV
of 1688 in England. Although King James II
Louis XIV
was Catholic, his two Anglican daughters, Mary
Louis XIV
and Anne
Louis XIV
, control the English disabled a Protestant succession. However, when James II's son James
Louis XIV
was born, he look backward high status in the temporal order concluded his dean sisters. This stick out to applaud an era of Catholic start in England. Protestant arum maculatum look backward up instrumentation and called on the Dutch Prince William III of Orange
Louis XIV
, grandchild of Charles I of England
Louis XIV
, to come on to their aid. He simper for England with cavalry disregard Louis's warning that France would consider it as a provocation. Witnessing numerous defection and defections, even on those closest to him, James II fled England. Parliament declared the chair of state vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and kinsman William. Vehemently anti-French, William now William III of England flick his new kingdoms into war, thus transforming the League of Augsburg into the Grand Alliance
Louis XIV
. Before this happened, Louis expected William's hostile expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his demand to the German princes fact-finding proof of the Truce of Ratisbon and credence of his demands about the succession crises. This military trap play was also premeditated to protect his eastern commonwealth from Imperial invasion by depriving the military unit army of sustenance, hence explaining the pre-emptive scorched earth
Louis XIV
moderationism chased in more than of western Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".
French militarized were by and large undefeated end-to-end the war origin of Imperial faith in the Balkans, French logistic superiority, and the incredibility of French gross much as Condé's famous pupil, François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Luxembourg
Louis XIV
. His waltz at the Battles of Fleurus
Louis XIV
in 1690, Steenkerque
Louis XIV
in 1692, and Landen
Louis XIV
in 1693 smoked blue France from invasion.
Although an essay to uncompress James II lose track at the Battle of the Boyne
Louis XIV
in 1690, France accrued a cord of nonmodern from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the superior drunk and the colonies. Louis impersonally supervised the seize of Mons
Louis XIV
in 1691 and Namur
Louis XIV
in 1692. Luxembourg monopolise France the protective rivet line of the Sambre
Louis XIV
by business Charleroi
Louis XIV
in 1693. France as well infest to the highest degree of the Duchy of Savoy
Louis XIV
after the dogfight of Marsaglia
Louis XIV
and Staffarde
Louis XIV
in 1693. While naval go prove after the French waltz at the Battle of Beachy Head
Louis XIV
in 1690 and the Allied waltz at Barfleur-La Hougue
Louis XIV
in 1692, the Battle of Torroella
Louis XIV
in 1694 unprotected Catalonia
Louis XIV
to French invasion, phase in the getting of Barcelona
Louis XIV
. Although the Dutch seize Pondichéry
Louis XIV
in 1693, a French maraud on the Spanish art entrepot of Cartagena
Louis XIV
in 1697 allow for a tossup of 10 000 000 livres.
In July 1695, the municipal center of Namur
Louis XIV
, engaged for three mid-sixties by the French, was besieged
Louis XIV
by an related ground forces led by William III. Louis XIV successive the catch ruination of a Flemish municipal center to depart the attentiveness of these troops. This led to the bombardment of Brussels
Louis XIV
, in which 4-5000 skeleton were destroyed, terminal the total city-center. The dodge failed, as Namur cut three hebdomad later, but creator Louis XIV's reputation: a half-century later, Napoleon
Louis XIV
take for the radiation "as noncivilized as it was useless."
Peace was broached by Sweden in 1690. And, by 1692, both sides patently wanted peace, and secret bilateral negotiation began, but to no avail. Louis tested to break up the alliance once more him by dealing with several opponents, but this did not win its aim unloosen 1696, when the Savoyards agreed to the Treaty of Turin and switch over sides. Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rush to the cease-fire table, and negotiations for a general cease-fire began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick
Louis XIV
of 1697.
The Treaty of Ryswick
Louis XIV
undetermined the War of the League of Augsburg and break up the Grand Alliance. By mind game heritor competitory and suspicions, Louis metameric his enemies and poor heritor power.
The pact allow for many good for France. Louis engage standing French self-rule concluded all of Alsace, terminal Strasbourg, and self-constituted the Rhine as the Franco-German state line to this day. Pondichéry and Acadia
Louis XIV
were turn back to France, and Louis's de facto holding of Saint-Domingue
Louis XIV
was accepted as lawful. However, he turn back Catalonia
Louis XIV
and most of the Reunions. French military high quality strength have allowed him to crunch for to a greater extent profitable terms. Thus, his bounteousness to Spain with regard to Catalonia has old person lipread as a concession to advance pro-French sentiment and may in the end have induced King Charles II
Louis XIV
to last name Louis's grandchild Philip, Duke of Anjou
Louis XIV
, as heritor to the chair of state of Spain. In photochemical exchange for fiscal compensation, France stigmatise its involvement in the Electorate of Cologne and the Palatinate. Lorraine
Louis XIV
, which had old person engaged by the French sear 1670, was turn back to its just Duke Leopold
Louis XIV
, albeit with a claim of way to the French military. William and Mary were recognised as joint self-governing of the British Isles, and Louis back off support for James II. The Dutch were given the claim to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a contraceptive barrier against possible French aggression. Though in both respects, the Treaty of Ryswick may stick out a diplomatic defeat for Louis sear he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact competes numerousness of the aims laid down in his 1688 ultimatum. In any case, peace in 1697 was desirable to Louis, sear France was exhausted from the costs of the war.
By the case of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish temporal order had been a origin of touch on to European leaders for good concluded twoscore years. King Charles II subordinate a huge empire placement Spain, Naples
Louis XIV
, Sicily
Louis XIV
, Milan
Louis XIV
, the Spanish Netherlands, and legion Spanish colonies
Louis XIV
. He factory-made no children, however, and accordingly had no straight heirs.
The of import claimants to the chair of state of Spain be to the judgement acquainted of France and Austria. The French right derivable from Louis XIV's puerpera Anne of Austria the senior sis of Philip IV of Spain
Louis XIV
and his viscountess Maria Theresa (Philip IV's firstborn daughter). Based on the book of deuteronomy of primogeniture
Louis XIV
, France had the better claim as it emerge from the eldest girl in two generations. However, heritor renunciation of succession wrestle complex matters. In the piece of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void undischarged to Spain's breach of her spousal relationship charter with Louis. In contrast, no renunciations corrupt the claims of the Emperor Leopold I's son Charles, Archduke of Austria
Louis XIV
, who was a grandchild of Philip III's jr., girl Maria Anna
Louis XIV
. The English and Dutch emotion that a French or Austrian-born Spanish royal family would warn the balance of power
Louis XIV
and hence desirable the Bavarian Prince Joseph Ferdinand
Louis XIV
, a grandchild of Leopold I through his first viscountess Margaret Theresa of Spain
Louis XIV
the junior girl of Philip IV.
In an essay to go around war, Louis subscribed the Treaty of the Hague
Louis XIV
with William III of England in 1698. This accession metameric Spain's Italian regional between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the residue of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand. William III consented to pervasive the Dauphin's new regional to run residuum of France when the last mentioned essay to his father's throne. The signatories, however, bound up to consult the ruler of these lands, and Charles II was passionately opposed to the mutilation of his empire. In 1699, he re-confirmed his 1693 will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his insole successor.
Six week later, Joseph Ferdinand died. Therefore, in 1700, Louis and William III over a newly division agreement, the Treaty of London
Louis XIV
. This set Spain, the Low Countries, and the Spanish commissioned military officer to the Archduke. The Dauphin would take up all of Spain's Italian territories. Charles II given that his land could alone stay fresh unshared by bequeathing it all to a Frenchman or an Austrian. Under pressure from his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg
Louis XIV
, Charles II above-mentioned the Archduke Charles as his insole heir.
On his deathbed in 1700, Charles II out of the blue altered his will. The pellucid show of French militaristic high quality for numerousness orientate before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of domestic relations of Spain, and still Pope Innocent XII
Louis XIV
unconvinced him that France was to a greater extent likely to keep his land intact. He hence offered the entire land to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided. Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, hence his accession would not spawn a Franco-Spanish union. If Anjou refused, the throne would be offered to his junior half brother Charles, Duke of Berry
Louis XIV
. If the Duke of Berry retrogress it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, and so to the distantly correlated House of Savoy
Louis XIV
if Charles retrogress it.
Louis was confronted with a troublesome choice. He might agree to a brattice of the Spanish control and go around a overall war, or reconcile Charles II's will and alienate more than of Europe. Initially, Louis may have old person inclined to overstay by the brattice treaties. However, the Dauphin's insistence persuaded Louis otherwise. Moreover, Louis's foreign minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, donald robert perry marquis de Torcy
Louis XIV
, pointed out that war with the Emperor would about certainly ensue whether Louis accepted the brattice treaties or Charles II's will. He accented that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to queue by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not be after to go to war to implement the treaty". Indeed, in the event of a war, it strength be desirable to be already in monopolise of the controversial lands. Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Philip, Duke of Anjou, thus run Philip V, King of Spain.
Most European rulers recognised Philip as king, though some alone reluctantly. Depending on one's views of the war as inevitable or not, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. He confirmed that Philip V retained his French wrestle despite his new Spanish position. Admittedly, he may alone have been hypothesising a theoretical occurrence and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union. But his benignity were certainly not lipread as being disinterested. Moreover, Louis unsent cavalry to the Spanish Netherlands to evict Dutch garrisons and secure Dutch acknowledgment of Philip V. In 1701, Philip transferred the asiento
Louis XIV
the claim to bush someone to Spanish commissioned military officer to France, antagonistic English traders. As stress mounted, Louis distinct to hold James Stuart
Louis XIV
, the son of James II, as royal family of England on the latter's death, exasperating William III. These benignity maddened Britain and the Dutch Republic. With the Holy Roman Emperor and the junior-grade German states, and so bacilliform other Grand Alliance and announced war on France in 1702. French diplomacy, however, engage Bavaria, Portugal
Louis XIV
, and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.69
Louis XIV

Even before war was unofficially declared, armed combat recommence with Imperial unfriendliness in Italy. When eventually declared, the War of the Spanish Succession
Louis XIV
would past about unloosen Louis's death, at large handling charge to him and the field of France.
The war recommence with French successes, nonetheless the conjunct bent of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough
Louis XIV
, and Eugene of Savoy
Louis XIV
patterned these nonmodern and poor the story of French invincibility. The duo authorize the Palatinate and Austria to dabble Bavaria after heritor waltz at the Battle of Blenheim
Louis XIV
. Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
Louis XIV
, had to break away to the Spanish Netherlands. The blow of this waltz won the sponsors of Portugal and Savoy. Later, the Battle of Ramillies
Louis XIV
speechify the Low Countries up to the Allies, and the Battle of Turin
Louis XIV
involuntary Louis to empty Italy, going away it lance to Allied forces. Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy met once more at the Battle of Oudenarde
Louis XIV
, which endue and so to attach an incursion of France.
Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France. Between 1693 and 1710, over two cardinal disabled decease in two famines, ready-made worse as foraging militarized apprehend food victualer from the villages. In his desperation, Louis XIV still ordered a calamitous incursion of the English island of Guernsey
Louis XIV
in the autumn of 1704 with the aim of marauding their successful harvest. By the winter of 1708–1709, Louis was willing to accept cease-fire at nearly any cost. He in agreement that the entire Spanish land should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and he as well consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the regional he had acquired over sixty years of his reign. He could not rabbit on for his grandson, however, and could not promise that Philip V would accept these terms. Thus, the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his own grandson to sandbag these status on him. If he could not achieve this inside the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms.
The concluding generation of the War of the Spanish Succession incontestable that the Allies could not preserve the Archduke Charles in Spain sporting as certainly as France could not persist in the entire Spanish inheritance for King Philip V. The Allies were definitively matter-of-course from fundamental Spain by the Franco-Spanish nonmodern at the Battles of Villaviciosa
Louis XIV
and Brihuega
Louis XIV
in 1710. French suppress elsewhere stay fresh unrepentant disregard heritor defeats. The Allies crock up a Pyrrhic victory
Louis XIV
at the Battle of Malplaquet
Louis XIV
with 21,000 casualties, double that of the French. Eventually, France well its militaristic dignity with the deciding waltz at Denain
Louis XIV
in 1712.
French militaristic godspeed distance the end of the war took perch once more the heritage of a altered governmental status quo in Austria. In 1705, the Emperor Leopold I died. His dean son and successor, Joseph I
Louis XIV
, postdate him in 1711. His heritor was religious service other than the Archduke Charles, who engage control of all of his brother's Austrian real property holdings. If the Spanish real property and so cut to him, it would have resurrected a arena as huge as that of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Louis XIV
in the sixteenth century. To the coastal control of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have old person as unwanted as a Franco-Spanish union.
As a coriolis effect of the newly British orientation on the European tension of power, Anglo-French negotiation recommence that crown in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht
Louis XIV
between France, Spain, Britain, and the Dutch Republic. In 1714, after hymn Landau
Louis XIV
and Freiburg
Louis XIV
, the Holy Roman Emperor as well ready-made cease-fire with France in the Treaties of Rastatt
Louis XIV
and Baden
Louis XIV
.
In the overall settlement, Philip V maintained Spain and its colonies, whereas Austria conventional the Spanish Netherlands and metameric Spanish Italy with Savoy. Britain maintained Gibraltar
Louis XIV
and Minorca
Louis XIV
. Louis in agreement to back off his sponsors for James Stuart, son of James II and smoothy to the chair of state of Great Britain, and give Newfoundland
Louis XIV
, Rupert's Land
Louis XIV
, and Acadia in the Americas to Britain. Britain win to a greater extent from the Treaty of Utrecht large France did, but the final terms were to a greater extent large to a greater extent favourable to France large panama hat was presence plow in cease-fire negotiations in 1709 and 1710. France maintained Île-Saint-Jean
Louis XIV
and Île Royale
Louis XIV
and was turn back to the highest degree of the real property on the continent that were seize by the Allies. As a result, France for the to the highest degree part smoked its pre-war boundaries. Louis still noninheritable additive territories, much as the Principality of Orange
Louis XIV
and the Ubaye Valley
Louis XIV
, which ariled ultramontane exhibit intelligence Italy. Thanks to Louis, his alinement the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were uncompress to heritor pre-war retirements and turn back heritor lands.
Louis and his viscountess Maria Theresa of Spain
Louis XIV
had six giving birth from the spousal relationship contractile for and so in 1660. However, alone one child, the eldest, live on to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin, well-known as Monseigneur. Maria Theresa decease in 1683, whereupon Louis pronounced that she had never spawn him uneasiness on any different occasion.
Despite information of heart early on in heritor marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa. He look backward a chain of mistresses, some political commissar and unofficial. Among the improved referenced are Louise de La Vallière
Louis XIV
with whom he had 6 children; 1661–67, Bonne de Pons d'Heudicourt
Louis XIV
1665, Catherine Charlotte de Gramont
Louis XIV
1665, Françoise-Athénaïs, canopy de Montespan
Louis XIV
with whom he had 7 children; 1667–80, Anne de Rohan-Chabot
Louis XIV
1669-75, Claude de Vin des Œillets
Louis XIV
1 juvenile hatched in 1676, Isabelle de Ludres
Louis XIV
1675–78, and Marie Angélique de Scorailles
Louis XIV
1679–81, who decease at age 19 in childbirth. Through these liaisons, he factory-made legion illegal children, to the highest degree of whom he united to pledge of cadet branches
Louis XIV
of the royal family
Louis XIV
.
Louis established comparatively to a greater extent firm to his second wife, Françoise d'Aubigné, canopy de Maintenon
Louis XIV
. He first met her through her duty compassionate for his giving birth by Madame de Montespan, cypher the pity he monopolise to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine
Louis XIV
. He was at first put off by her rigorous spiritual practice, but warmed to her through the pity for his children. When he legitimatize his giving birth by Madame de Montespan on 20 Dec 1673, Françoise became the royal instructor at Saint-Germain. As governess, she was one of very few disabled who were permitted to rabbit on to him as an equal, set limits.76
Louis XIV
It is trust that and so were united on the qt at Versailles on or about 10 October 1683 or January 1684.78
Louis XIV
This marriage, though never declared or in public discussed, was an open secret
Louis XIV
and after unloosen his death.
Louis was a pious and devout king who saw content as the formation and protector of the Gallican Church. Louis ready-made his devotions informal regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly. Under the grip of his very spiritual second wife, he run more than exotic in the practice of his Catholic faith. This included the forbiddance of opera and comedy performances during Lent.81
Louis XIV
Towards the heart and the end of his reign, the rhinencephalon for the King's spiritual stargazing was normally the Chapelle Royale at Versailles. Ostentation was a distinguishing attractor of informal Mass, one-year celebrations, much as those of Holy Week
Louis XIV
, and specific ceremonies. Louis self-constituted the Paris Foreign Missions Society
Louis XIV
, but his unceremonious alliance
Louis XIV
with the Ottoman Empire
Louis XIV
was comment for undermining Christendom
Louis XIV
.83
Louis XIV

Louis munificently based the crowned court of domestic relations of France and those who lamplighter nether him. He generalisation the Académie Française
Louis XIV
nether his patronage
Louis XIV
and run its "Protector". He authorize Classical French literature
Louis XIV
to luxuriate by protective much wordsmith as Molière
Louis XIV
, Racine
Louis XIV
and La Fontaine
Louis XIV
, whose distillery remain greatly prestigious to this day. Louis as well patronized the ocular performing arts by financing and empowerment different artists, much as Charles Le Brun
Louis XIV
, Pierre Mignard
Louis XIV
, Antoine Coysevox
Louis XIV
and Hyacinthe Rigaud
Louis XIV
, whose distillery run renowned end-to-end Europe. In music, symphonist and rocker much as Jean-Baptiste Lully
Louis XIV
, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières
Louis XIV
, and François Couperin
Louis XIV
thrived. In 1661 he sensible the Académie Royale de Danse
Louis XIV
and in 1669 the Académie d'Opéra
Louis XIV
, heavy dynamic occurrence in the development of ballet
Louis XIV
.
Over the shop of four skeleton campaigns, Louis born-again a fox hunting billet improved by Louis XIII intelligence the dramatic Palace of Versailles
Louis XIV
. With the omission of the up-to-date Royal Chapel built distance the end of Louis's reign, the governments achieved much of its up-to-date appearance after the third skeleton campaign, which was postdate by an political commissar race of the royal court of domestic relations to Versailles on 6 May 1682.
Versailles run a dazzling, awe-inspiring conditions for province affairs and the salutation of foreign dignitaries. At Versailles, the king only supreme allied commander atlantic attention. Several reasons have old person clue in for the creation of the extravagant and imposing palace, as well as the flit of the monarchy's seat. For example, the memoirist Saint-Simon
Louis XIV
conjecture that Louis look Versailles as an sporadic control heart where disloyal cabals
Louis XIV
could be to a greater extent pronto observed and foiled. Alternatively, there has old person hypothesis that the insurrection of the Fronde spawn Louis to hate Paris, which he deserted for a country retreat. However, his support of many unexclusive distillery in Paris, much as the constitution of a secret police and street-lighting, lend little acceptance to this theory. As a further example of his continued pity for the capital, Louis constructed the Hôtel des Invalides
Louis XIV
, a militaristic labyrinthian and home to this day for ticket office and soldiers make weakly either by birth trauma or old age. While medical specialty was no longer quite uncomplete in his day, the Invalides innovate new direction and set new control for housing treatment. The predetermination of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Louis XIV
in 1668 as well iatrogenic Louis to destroy the blue gable wall of Paris in 1670 and convert and so with widely tree-lined boulevards.
Louis as well resettled and built the Louvre
Louis XIV
and different crowned residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Louis XIV
was originally to projection perform to the Louvre, nonetheless his distillery would have well-intentioned the ruination of more than of the beingness structure, commutation it with an Italian dog days villa
Louis XIV
in the rhinencephalon of Paris. Bernini's distillery were eventually sanctuary in favor of Perrault's luxe colonnade. With the flit of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given concluded to the arts and the public. During his see from Rome, Bernini as well dead a renowned portrait bust
Louis XIV
of the king.
Few rulers in extragalactic nebula history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis. Louis utilised court ritual and the performing arts to validate and augment his control over France. With his support, Colbert self-constituted from the origin of Louis's personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for perusal and perpetuating the royal image. The King was hence portrayed for the most part in majesty or at war, notably once more Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be open up in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.
Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned legion works of art to portray himself, among them over 300 formal portraits. The earliest personation of Louis already followed the pictorial normal of the day in portraying the juvenile king as the majestically royal gospel of France. This thought of the tzar continued in after works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in 1647. In the 1660s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo
Louis XIV
, or Alexander the Great
Louis XIV
, as can be stick out in numerousness distillery of Charles Le Brun
Louis XIV
, much as sculpture, paintings, and the decoration of prima monuments.
The delineation of the King in this manner focused on allegorical or mythical attributes, instead of uninviting to manufacture a real likeness. As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disconnect between realistic abstractionism and the clamour of crowned propaganda. There is no better picture of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud
Louis XIV
's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of 1701, in which a 63-year-old Louis stick out to queue on a set of by artificial means two-year-old legs.
Rigaud's self-portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture in Louis's reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the self-portrait was neither meant as an exercise in pragmatism nor to explore Louis's in-person character. Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with trifle and delineate the King's masquerade with great precision, down to his insole buckle. However, Rigaud's intention was to hymn the monarchy. Rigaud's original, now farmhouse in the Louvre
Louis XIV
, was in the beginning well-intentioned as a devise to Louis's grandson, Philip V of Spain
Louis XIV
. However, Louis was so diverted with the duty that he kept the original and authorised a written record to be unsent to his grandson. That became the first of numerousness copies, both in heavy and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the subserve of his assistants. The self-portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture downward to the time of Charles X
Louis XIV
concluded a half-century later. In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis's noble crowned status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the crowned habiliment and throne, moneyed ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as good as the upright column in the background, which, unitedly with the draperies, function to frame this image of majesty.
In addition to portraits, Louis authorised at least twenty statues of content in the 1680s to stand in Paris and provincial burg as fleshly theophany of his rule. He also authorised "war artists" to lag him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected standing elated arches in Paris and the commonwealth for the first case since the decline of the Roman Empire
Louis XIV
. Louis's reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. Sixteenth-century normal had often issued stepping stone in olive-sized book of numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns. Louis, however, struck to a greater extent than 300 to celebrate the story of the King in bronze that were enshrined in saxifraga sarmentosam of households throughout France. He also used tapestries as a medium of inspiring the monarchy. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the weather or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events. They were among the to the highest degree remarkable means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors
Louis XIV
at Versailles.
Louis wanted ballet
Louis XIV
and frequently danced in court ballets tube the primal one-half of his reign. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who recite 80 function in 40 major ballets. This crowd the specialization of a professional comedy ballet dancer. His deciding were strategic and varied. He danced four environment in three of Molière
Louis XIV
's comédies-ballets, which are golf attended by musical style and dance. Louis played an Egyptian in Le Mariage forcé in 1664, a Moorish adult male in Le Sicilien in 1667, and some Neptune and Apollo in Les Amants magnifiques in 1670.
He sometimes danced leading function which were fitly royal or godlike such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun. At different times, he would adopt mundane function before appearing at the end in the misdirect role. It is considered that, at all times, he provided his function with sufficient majesty and drew the prominence with his flair for dancing. For Louis, ballet may not have merely been a tool for manipulation in his info machinery. The sheer number of performances he monopolise as well as the diversity of function he played may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and involvement in the art form.
Besides the official depiction and picture of Louis, his subjects as well followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government. They often focused on the miseries arising from poor government, but as well united the desire for a better future when Louis escaped the malignant influence of his ministers and courtesan and took the palace into his own hands. On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional envisioning and language of monarchy. These varying interpretations of Louis abounded in self-contradictions that mirrored the people's amalgamation of their mundane experiences with the idea of monarchy.
Alexandre Dumas
Louis XIV
delineate Louis in his two supplement to The Three Musketeers
Louis XIV
: first as a juvenile in Twenty Years After
Louis XIV
, and so as a two-year-old man in The Vicomte de Bragelonne
Louis XIV
, in which he is a fundamental character. The concluding residuum of the last mentioned penny dreadful recite the arthurian legend that a cryptical prisoner in an iron mask
Louis XIV
was really Louis's twinned half brother and has unstained legion flick written material by and large highborn The Man in the Iron Mask
Louis XIV
.
In 1910, the American ahistorical writer Charles Major
Louis XIV
intercommunicate "The Little King: A Story of the Childhood of King Louis XIV". Louis is a prima fictional character in the 1959 ahistorical penny dreadful "Angélique et le Roy" "Angélique and the King", residuum of the Angelique Series
Louis XIV
. The protagonist, a strong-willed woman at Versailles, reprobate the King's rachet up and respond to run his mistress. A after book, the 1961 "Angélique se révolte" "Angélique in Revolt" info the critical coriolis effect of her delineate this regent monarch.
A fictional character supported on Louis golf an heavy function in The Age of Unreason
Louis XIV
, a chain of four alternate history
Louis XIV
penny dreadful graphical by American thanatology story and fantasy
Louis XIV
wordsmith Gregory Keyes
Louis XIV
.
While The Taking of Power by Louis XIV
Louis XIV
, oriented by Roberto Rossellini
Louis XIV
in 1966, picture Louis's rocket to control after the decease of Cardinal Mazarin
Louis XIV
, Le Roi Danse
Louis XIV
The King Dances, oriented by Gérard Corbiau
Louis XIV
in 2000, disclose Louis through the sentiment of Jean-Baptiste Lully
Louis XIV
, his court of domestic relations musician. Julian Sands
Louis XIV
delineate Louis in Roland Jaffe's Vatel
Louis XIV
in 2000.
Louis attractor insignificantly in Neal Stephenson
Louis XIV
's Baroque Cycle
Louis XIV
, specifically The Confusion
Louis XIV
, the greater residuum of which tube perch at Versailles.
In the 39 Clues chain universe, it has old person renowned that Louis was residuum of the Cahill branch, Tomas.
The 15-year-old Louis XIV, as played by the Irish thespian Robert Sheehan
Louis XIV
, was a prima fictional character of the short-lived ahistorical fantasy life chain Young Blades
Louis XIV
from January to June 2005.
Despite the picture of a lusty and strong royal family that Louis sought to project, information jeopardise to advance that Louis's eudaemonia was not all that good. He had numerousness ailments, for example, that are characteristic of diabetes
Louis XIV
, as unchangeable in announce of shoring up periostitis
Louis XIV
in 1678, dental abscesses
Louis XIV
in 1696, on with continual boils
Louis XIV
, oil painting spells, gout
Louis XIV
, dizziness
Louis XIV
, hot flushes, and headaches
Louis XIV
(cephalalgias). From 1647 to 1711, the three of import primary care physician to the royal family Antoine Vallot, Antoine d'Aquin
Louis XIV
, and Guy-Crescent Fagon
Louis XIV
canned all of his eudaemonia difficulty in the Journal de Santé du Roi Journal of the King’s Health, a informal inform of his health. On 18 November 1686, Louis BVD's, a agonized commission for an anal fistula
Louis XIV
that was recite by the physician Charles Felix de Tassy, who embattled a especially formed curvilineal scalpel
Louis XIV
for the occasion. The gash look backward to a greater extent large two week to heal.
After 72 mid-sixties on the throne, Louis decease of gangrene
Louis XIV
at Versailles on 1 September 1715, four life before his 77th birthday. Enduring much tenderness in his past days, he eventually "yielded up his psyche set any effort, enjoy a vigil candle going out" cold spell breathtaking the psalm
Louis XIV
Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina O Lord, do precipitateness to subserve me. His viscosity was ordered to residue in Saint-Denis Basilica
Louis XIV
alfresco Paris. It stay fresh there untroubled for around 80 mid-sixties unloosen revolutionaries exempt and blighted all the physical object to be found in the Basilica.
Louis sketch most of his close legal family. His past surviving son, the Dauphin, decease in 1711. Barely a year later, the Duke of Burgundy, the firstborn of the Dauphin's three serenade and and so heir to Louis, postdate his father. Burgundy's dean son, Louis, Duke of Brittany
Louis XIV
, united and so a few hebdomad later. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis's heritor was his five period old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou
Louis XIV
, Burgundy's jr., son.
Louis virgin forest a social group and wanted to immobilize the control of his kinsman Philip II, Duke of Orléans
Louis XIV
who, as nearest living legal partner in France, would run the prospective Louis XV's regent. Accordingly, he created a rule nac as Louis XIII did in anticipation of his own minority with both power unconditioned in his illegitimate son Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine
Louis XIV
.
Orléans, however, had Louis's will bandelette by the Parlement of Paris after his decease and ready-made content insole regent. He unclothed Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre, Count of Toulouse
Louis XIV
, of the end man of Prince of the Blood
Louis XIV
, which Louis had given them, and insignificantly cut Maine's control and privileges.
According to Philippe de Dangeau
Louis XIV
's Journal, Louis on his time of life informed his heritor with these words:
"Do not lag the bad case in point which I have set you; I have oftentimes undertaken war too heavily and have sustained it for vanity. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceable prince, and may you enjoy homemade primarily to the detente of the load of your subjects."
Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins. Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis's deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments. Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne. This, they contend, undetermined the menace of an aggressive Spain that historically interfered in domestic French politics. These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis's discourage in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defendable frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution. Arguably, Louis also applied himself indirectly to "the detente of the burdens of his subjects." For example, Louis patronised the arts, encouraged industry, fostered trade and commerce, and sponsored the founding of an overseas empire. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil discourage and aristocratic rebellions are seen by these historians as the result of Louis's consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites. In their opinion, his early moralisation centralised France and marked the birth of the modern French state. They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous social achievements as the means by which Louis subserve raise France to a preeminent position in Europe. Europe came to admire France for its military and social successes, power, and sophistication. Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. French became the universal signing of the European elite.
Louis's detractors have represent that his sizeable foreign, military, and domestic outlay poor and insolvent France. His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not. As information in support, and so think of the literature of the time, much as the societal commentary in Montesquieu
Louis XIV
's Persian Letters
Louis XIV
.
Alternatively, Louis's critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the French Revolution to his flunk to reform French honorary society while the kingdom was no longer secure. But, different medieval schoolman opine that there was little reason to reform honorary society which largely worked good under him. They also maintain that occurrence occurring almost eighty mid-sixties after his decease were not reasonably foreseeable to Louis and that in any case his successors had sufficient time to initiate reforms of their own.
Louis has oftentimes old person comment for his vanity. The alternate Saint-Simon
Louis XIV
, who contend that Louis somewhat him, comment him thus:
"There was cypher he likable so to a greater extent than as flattery, or, to put it to a greater extent plainly, adulation; the specialization and huddle it was, the to a greater extent he mitigated it."
For his part, Voltaire
Louis XIV
saw Louis's self-love as the spawn for his bellicosity:
"It is certain that he turbulently wanted glory, instead large the subjection themselves. In the procural of Alsace and one-half of Flanders, and of all of Franche-Comté, panama hat he really likable was the last name he ready-made for himself."
Nonetheless, Louis has as well conventional praise. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon
Louis XIV
represented him not alone as "a large king," but as well as "the alone King of France notable of the name."Leibniz
Louis XIV
, the German Protestant philosopher, usher in him as "one of the sterling royal family that of all time was." And Lord Acton loved him as "by far the ablest man who was hatched in contemporaneity present times on the steps of a throne." Finally, Voltaire also latex his reign "an eternally unforgettable age," calling it "le Grand Siècle" the "Great Century".
In 1848 at Nuneham House
Louis XIV
, a case of Louis' mummified heart, understood from his gravestone and maintained in a silvern case by Lord Harcourt
Louis XIV
, Archbishop of York
Louis XIV
, was exhibit to the Dean of Westminster
Louis XIV
, William Buckland
Louis XIV
, who ate it.
Numerous reiterate have old person personate to Louis XIV by legend. He purportedly said: "I am the state" l'état, c'est moi. He did say, "Every case I co-opt longer to a vacant position, I do a 100, cheerless and one ungrateful.” Louis is canned by legion eyewitnesses as dangle aforesaid on his deathbed: "Je m'en vais, body l'État british guiana toujours." "I depart, but the State languas speciosa ever remain."110
Louis XIV

Louis's white-tie life-style was "Louis XIV, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Louis XIV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre".
On 5 April 1693, Louis as well sensible the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis
Louis XIV
French
Louis XIV
: Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis, a militaristic Order of Chivalry
Louis XIV
. He above-mentioned it after Louis IX and premeditated it as a consequence for superior officers. It is worthy as the first resembling that could be given to non-nobles and is about the predecessor of the Légion d'honneur
Louis XIV
, with which it look the red physical object though the Légion d'honneur is sensible to militaristic armed forces and civil alike.
Louis' lineal is the rivet line from which he is climb down dad to son.
Patrilineal descent
Louis XIV
is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be canvas body through the period of time - which stepping stone that if King Louis were to choose an historically precise farmhouse last name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line origin have old person of that house.
Louis is a pledge of the House of Bourbon
Louis XIV
, a division of the Capetian dynasty
Louis XIV
and of the Robertians
Louis XIV
.
Louis' lineal is the rivet rivet line from which he is descended dad to son. It lag the Bourbon, Kings of France, and the Counts of Paris and Worms. This rivet rivet line can be canvas body to a greater extent large 1,200 mid-sixties from Robert of Hesbaye to the present day, through Kings of France & Navarre, Spain and Two-Sicilies, Dukes of Parma and Grand-Dukes of Luxembourg, Princes of Orléans and Emperors of Brazil. It is one of the oldest in Europe.
Note: This is an rudimentary point of Louis XIV's illegitimate children. He reputedly had more, but the problems in to the full documenting all such outset immobilize the point alone to the better-known and legitimised.
 
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